Types of Cerebral Palsy

Although there’re actually four identified types of cerebral palsy, many people in the general population who have no personal experience with cerebral palsy identify it with the most horrifying symptoms, & the most well-known cases. There is more. The movie “My Left Foot” was about the life story of Christy Brown, an Irish man who was afflicted with one of the more severe types of cerebral palsy. This was only one media device in which one of the more severe types of cerebral palsy, called spastic cerebral palsy, was featured. Spastic cerebral palsy is one of the types of cerebral palsy with symptoms characterized by tight muscle groups & jerky movements.

Approximately 80% of cerebral palsy suffers have this type. The other three types of cerebral palsy include: athetoid, ataxic, & mixed. What many people do not understand is that cerebral palsy is a very broad & general term, used by the medical establishment much like IBS, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, to identify a broad range of conditions. Even the types of cerebral palsy themselves can vary considerably. What characterizes all types of cerebral palsy is a neurological disturbance, occurring early on at birth or in early childhood, which affects the behavior or control of muscles in some way. The severity of the disease, however, can also vary considerably. By example, in the case of Christy Brown, he was left a quadraplegic with limited control of his facial & neck muscles, & with the use of only one of his limbs, his left foot. Other cerebral palsy victims can appear almost normal & have very subdued symptoms, regardless of which type of cerebral palsy they have.

Tension & Resistance in Muscles Divides Types of Cerebral Palsy

So what distinguishes the four different types of cerebral palsy? What professionals call muscle tone. What gives most of us the ability to pick up an object, or do simple tasks like raise our arm to brush our hair, is the ability to increase or decrease tension in our opposing muscle groups. There is more. Those afflicted with cerebral palsy either can notrelease the tension, or they can notapply the tension, for example to grip a toothbrush or to grab onto a tree limb. In a type of cerebral palsy called ataxia, they simply can notcoordinate the muscle tension in a normal manner. Regardless of the type of cerebral palsy, however, the problem is not in the muscles themselves, but in the brain area which controls muscle tone. Whatever type of cerebral palsy one has, information can be easily found on line through many of the cerebral palsy organizations, such as United Cerebral Palsy (UCP), the March of Dimes Birth Defect Foundation & the Childrens Neurobiological Solutions Foundation.

Discover the Types of Cerebral Palsy or visit Cerebral Palsy Information for Cerebral Palsy help.

Medical Malpractice; How Do We Get More Nurses to Shore Up the Shortages

Now that the legal professionals (Lawyers) who specialize in medical malpractice have been finding resistance in suing Doctors, because now the doctors have better lawyers; these medical malpractice lawyers are suing nurses. Now the nurses are paying higher costs in medical mal-practice insurance or their hospitals are paying it for them & this is raising rates significantly & also causing some nurses to select other professions & drop out of the medical infrastructure system of our nation all together.

Yet in doing so how can we replace all these nurses? Well it will not actually be easy you see as they are graduating many more lawyers to sue than they are nurses to heal these days? The shortage of nurses is getting great & hospitals are offering incentives such as new cars, pay off up to 12,000 in credit card bills or a $10,000 cash gift simply for signing up with their hospital for three years. And that is on top of their high-pay, insurance premiums for medical malpractice & all the perks & benefits of being a nurse.

Still with all of these things we have a shortage of nurses in our health care system & the American People are not getting any younger these days either. So the question remains due to Medical Malpractice; How do we get more nurses to shore up the shortages? It will not actually be easy that is for sure. Consider all this in 2006.

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Medical Malpractice

Medical malpractice is the failure of medical professionals & personnel to provide adequate treatment to patients resulting in personal injury, substantial loss of income, or death.

Medical malpractice can happen to anyone, anywhere, at anytime. It could or may have happened to you, a family member, or even a close friend. The effects of malpractice may not always be apparent, as some people are fortunate enough not to have any damage done at all.

Thousands of injuries and/or deaths occur from:

Prescription Drug Malpractice
Surgical Errors
Birth Injury & Defects
Gastric Bypass Problems
Medication Malpractice
Wrongful Death
Dental Errors
Cosmetic Surgery Mistakes
Breast Implant Malpractice
Wrong Diagnosis & Misdiagnosis
Psychiatric Malpractice
Anesthesia Malpractice
Dentist Malpractice
Unnecessary Surgery
Among many other complications

The effects of malpractice can be none at all (ideally) or completely life changing, depending on each person & the procedure(s) that were performed without the proper care & skill that should have been required. Each & everyone’s individual situation & circumstances are unique.

No matter what the outcome, you have rights to protect yourself. You can file a medical malpractice claim or lawsuit & receive compensation for your injuries, substantial loss of income or pension, & any other damages that you may have incurred as a result of malpractice. If you or a person you know has been a victim of medical malpractice or strongly suspect it, know that there’re people who will fight for you.

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Psychiatry for Physicians – Dementia – Other Types

Other categories of dementia worth mentioning are dementia due to Pick’s disease, dementia due to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, dementia due to Huntington’s disease, dementia due to Parkinson’s disease, dementia due to HIV disease, substance induced dementia, & dementia syndrome of depression.

Dementia due to Pick’s disease is a variety of frontotemporal dementia. In it there is progressive reduction of speech, loss of insight & stereotyped, perseverative behaviors, together with relatively late onset of memory & visuospatial disturbance. SPECT & PET are the two most useful imaging technique for diagnosis it.

The infectious agent for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is the Piron. Clinical deterioration is very rapid in this dementia. Progressive decline with death within one year is common for this problem. Intellectual devastation, myoclonic jerks, muscle rigidity, & ataxia are some features of this illness. EEG, functional imaging & biopsy are some useful techniques for this illness.

Dementia in Huntington’s disease occurs due to some idiopathic, inherited, autosomal dominant neurodegeneration. It starts after 40 years of age & deteriorates to the extreme in around 17 years course. Irritability, apathy, depression, mania, defective cognition, memory retrieval deficit etc are common features. Absence of aphasia helps to differentiate it from DAT. CT or MRI can be very useful for the diagnosis of this dementia.

Prevalence of dementia among Parkinson’s Disease patients is about 25%. It is noted especially among late onset patients. Presentation of dementia in PD is complicated that mainly represents degeneration of subcortical ascending system with neuronal loses in multiple neurotransmitter related systems.

HIV type 1 causes dementia. It causes atrophy & demyelination of subcortical white matter. Three subtypes are seen among HIV type 1 seropositive patients. There is more. They are subcortical, cortical & non affected variety according to the neuropsychiatric impact. OK. Substance induced dementia is mainly seen in persons with alcohol abuse.

Depression can cause dementia syndrome that is called pseudodementia. But dementia & depression can occur due to the same underlying pathology. Other causes of dementia include mainly the structural damage to the brain in different situations. But causes like brain tumor, vitamin B 12 deficiency are also there in the enlisted causes.

About the Author:

Dr. Mohammad Samir Hossain PhD is a researcher teacher of Psychiatry & a Psychotherapist in Bangladesh. He is renouned for his educational & research activity in mental health sector nationally & internationally. The Dictionary of International Biography cites his brief biography starting from its 33rd edition. One of the best educational institutions involved with his educational activity is the Harvard Medical School of USA. Visit his personal page at http://www.samirhossain.org

How To Deal With A Headache Using Home Made Remedies

A headache paralyzes the entire body. Even a simple task as chatting becomes a behemoth. Here are some home remedies to relieve from the excruciating headache.

The Common Home Remedy For Headache

The most common cause for headache is stress. There is more. Taking a break & relaxing would definitely help in reducing the stress. Usually when people are stressed, overworked or emotionally upset their eating habits change vastly & one thing they neglect most is drinking water, which in turn leads to dehydration & horrible headaches.

So, in order to get away with the headache, always remember to drink lots of water. This would avoid your body to get dehydrated & electrolytes in water such as Gatorade or PowerAde further more helps in quicker hydration of your body.

Exercise is another great way to avoid the pain. The best-suited exercise would be the one, which is less stressful. A more relaxing type such as yoga or Pilates would be a great remedy. Furthermore, exercises increase blood circulation & help reduce headaches in the process.

A good long relaxing bath also works wonders in getting relief from stress related headache situations. Adding light some scented candles with essential oils such as lavender would add to the relaxation & soothe the senses. Also make a point to catch up with a good sound sleep in a quite environment whenever possible. However – the treatment is not the best for all those who suffer from sensitivities to smell. If the headache is derived from sinus infections, inhale hot water vapors for approximately 10 minutes or to apply hot & cold compresses over the affected area.

Helpful Tips

The effect of these home remedies for headaches howeverdepends on the types of headache & also on present state of health. Natural remedies such as acupuncture are also traditional pain relievers. In case the situation worsens or persists consult a doctor.

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A Real Friend For Hard Times Is A Personal Injury Lawyer

Future is unpredictable; we do not know what’s going to happen at the next step, it may be an accident or any other personal injury that can affect life. In a situation where crisis is a personal injury you need some one who can make you feel better & can pave the way to instant recovery of loss. There is more. Through a rough patch of personal injury you can not even expect supporting hand from your family members as they are also affected by the physical & emotional trauma. A personal injury lawyer New York can be your best companion in your hard days which not only helps you to get justice but also acts as a friend at the time of crisis.

Hiring a Personal injury lawyer New York is a wise decision but only if the choice is also wise. Confidence in your personal injury lawyer is also important that is why it is must to consider the previous track record of the lawyer. Good track record of a lawyer helps to develop faith in your lawyer as you see the long list of cases handled successfully by him. It gives you great relief when you find a personal injury lawyer New York with excellent track record in similar cases like you… It is better to search for a personal injury lawyer New York who has expertise in fighting cases that are similar to your situation. His expertise definitely helps you even when another party has wealth & political might.

Injury that is caused by any other entity either it is an individual or a corporation has right to claim recovery or fine for it… In the fight of claiming penalty for injuries you need a personal injury lawyer New York at every step of your case right from filing the case to winning. Do you follow? The overall legal process demands a through study & research over the case within a very limited period of time so your personal injury lawyer should have expertise to recognize the weak & strong aspects of the case at a glance. Personal injury lawyer New York gives you the excellent approach to turn your annoyance in to satisfaction of getting justice. Personal injury lawyer New York gives you a feeling of refuge & potential to fight against injustice & strengthens your voice to speak in front of the individual or corporation that caused the injury.

A personal lawyer New York is one whom you can trust but it does not mean that there is no need to check out terms & conditions. It is must to know the terms & conditions before hiring any personal injury lawyer. A personal injury lawyer New York charges the reasonable amount & informs you about cost criteria so that you will not have to pay any extra or hidden cost but still it is advisable to do a little market research before making any decision. The personal injury lawyer New York that you hire can be your biggest support when you & your family need some one who can get rid of the husk of anguish from your lives.

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Migraine And Diet, How To Combat Migraine

Several studies into migraine have found that there’re various food types that may serve as triggers for the painful condition. The numerous potential food triggers are why there is no definitive recommended migraine diet that can help alleviate the pain or abruptly stop the severe headaches. If you are one of those people who are suffering from occasional or even regular migraine attacks, it can be help-fulto know these trigger foods so you can avoid or skip the foods from your regular meals.

It has been estimated that there’re three times more women who are affected by migraines as compared to the number of men suffering from the painful attacks. Some experts assert that aside from the hormonal factor, the diet & food preference of women also serve as a significant aspect behind the statistics. It has been found that women generally have more sweet & sugary foods in their diets than men. It is believed that consumption of sweets may lead to the onset & manifestation of migraine & its symptoms.

Sugary foods & sweets should be avoided particularly because these foods contain refined carbohydrates that lead to higher blood sugar content in the blood. In turn, blood sugar content leads to actions of neurotransmitters of the nerves in the head, leading to throbbing pain in some parts of the head. Aside from that, your overall health should improve if you adopt a low-carbohydrate diet because carbohydrates are the main source of glucose & fats, that when stored within the body makes up body fats that lead to obesity & excessive weight.

Foods that contain artificial sweetener aspartame should also be avoided, as well as dishes that contain monosodium glutamate or MSG, which is a common taste enhancing ingredient of most Chinese & Asian cuisine. Nitrate containing processed food like hotdogs, corned beef & luncheon meat should also be avoided.

Aging cheese, caffeine in coffee, chocolate & even citrus fruits are also found to be common & effective causes of migraine attacks, so if you can avoid them, it would be very wise to do so. Alcoholic beverages like beer, red wine & other drinks are also common culprits leading to migraine attacks.

As for foods that are recommended for you to include in your diet, Vitamin B-rich foods lead the way. Green & leafy vegetables are the usual sources of Vitamin B-complex nutrients. Magnesium is one mineral nutrient that enables people to avoid & curtail migraine & other diseases.

To get a migraine friendly diet look to reduce the common trigger foods & maintain a diary to identify any trigger foods that are singular to you.

Find out more about preventing migraines at http://migraine-treatment.info

Malpractice Lawsuits are Devastating in Many Ways

There are many types of harmful medical mistakes & potential mistakes for which malpractice suits, & threats of malpractice suits, represent virtually the only control. The problem with lawsuits to correct these actions is that identification is often random & incomplete, & frequently the suits respond to bad 😥 luck rather than bad 😥 practice. The suits may do more harm than good in the following ways:

1. Interfere with & even destroy trusting patient-physician relationships. Physicians come to view patients as litigants.
2. Over ordering of invasive tests to stop the long-shot, bad 😥 luck case.
3. Tendency to cover-up mistakes to stop lawsuits.
4. Increasing the cost of medicine by many obvious ways.
5. Failure to distinguish truly bad 😥 physicians from those who were victims of bad 😥 luck, good physicians are lumped together with bad. We still can not tell which physicians are in need of discipline.

I am sure many physicians do attempt very hard to practice good medicine & do not let the threat of malpractice influence their practice. But this is the real world, & physicians are human first. For some doctors, avoiding lawsuits is very important as lawsuits are devastating in more ways than I can enumerate.

And this is troubling. Unfortunately, it is like democracy itself… Lawsuits are the worst system for controlling malpractice. Except for any other system that we have. I would like to see an honest appraisal, free of hype & blame, that would benefit patients & the medical system. We can do better, but first we have to recognize what works & what doesn’t.

D. Valerian is a freelance writer interested in items such as medical malpractice

Psychiatry for Physicians-Dementia – Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type

Among all the patients with progressive cognitive decline about fifty percent suffers from Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type (DAT). The risk of developing DAT increases with age. Other risk factors including genetics are also present. Macroscopic features of a DAT brain are cortical atrophy, widening of sulci, & ventricular enlargement. Microscopic features of the same are –

1. Neuronal loss
2. Neurofibrillary tangles
3. Neuropil threads
4. Neuritic plaques 5. Dystrophic neuronal processes
6. Granulovacuolar degeneration
7. Amyloid angiopathy

In DAT the most severe pathological change occurs in medial temporal lobe. The first changes are seen in the entorhinal cortex. The location & number of lesions are the main factors behind clinical features of DAT.

DAT usually starts after the age of 50 years. It is progression it too silent to be noted by the family members initially. Initially the patients are more rigid, inflexible, less adventurous, more irritable, & less spontaneous. There is more. The overall quality of performance declines & patient becomes gradually dependent on others. There is more. The patient deteriorates over months or years, very especially on the aspect of cognitive function. In case of patients with concurrent medical illnesses dramatic deterioration may occur. Independence of the patient’s daily activity gets severely hampered. Psychotic features like delusion, hallucination often develop. In the end the patient fails to recognize their family members or even their own face. Seizures are seen at the late stage of the disease. The final stage of the disease is usually characterized by the followings –

1. Incontinence of urine & feces
2. Loss of intelligible vocabulary
3. Difficulty in walking & sitting up

The diagnosis of DAT mainly requires gradual, progressive development of multiple cognitive deficits. Both memory impairment & cognitive disturbances are included in these deficits. Patient fails to remember three unrelated words for 3 minutes. Cognitive disturbance patterns are more or less consistent with those described in the introductory portion of dementia.

For the purpose of treatment the following steps are necessary –

1. Control of abnormal behavior related to the disease
2. Attempts to restore cognitive functions
3. Attempts to delay cognitive decline

The above three purposes are connected with pharmacotherapy in the line of the biological abnormality present. Other environmental approaches are also important.

About the Author:

Dr. Mohammad Samir Hossain PhD is a researcher teacher of Psychiatry & a Psychotherapist in Bangladesh. He is renouned for his educational & research activity in mental health sector nationally & internationally. The Dictionary of International Biography cites his brief biography starting from its 33rd edition. One of the best educational institutions involved with his educational activity is the Harvard Medical School of USA. Visit his personal page at http://www.samirhossain.org

Typical Effective Teaching Strategies for Individuals With Autism

This is a conglomeration of preferred strategies, I have learned in classes & workshops, interspersed with my own preferences for effective programming.

Children with autism are individuals, first & foremost. Each one of them comes to us with an array of cognitive abilities, learning styles, sensory irritants & impairments, need for routine, visual or auditory preferences, movement disturbances, varied & intense communication disturbances, difficulties with social interactions & or commingling conditions such as obsessive compulsive disorder, dysphasia, hyperactivity, opposition defiance disorder, psychosis, acute anxiety, post traumatic stress syndrome — the list goes on. No one program will best meet the needs of all children. Intuition, flexibility & a willingness to use a variety of approaches will best insure progress of each individual child.

I prefer a combination of incidental teaching, child-directed activities, & a modified discrete trial format. I attempt for errorless teaching, prompting where necessary to keep the child from floundering. I use backward chaining of motored & visual prompts. All of these are to be ramped down as acquisition of skills develops. Communication, social skills & behavior are taught at different levels during all activities, dependent on each child’s communicative level & individualized motivational factors.

I start by addressing attending behaviors. I often attempt to make a connection with the child by sending out a dominant rhythm in hopes of establishing a relationship. I often elect to take a submissive role — I do this in an attempt to show the child that he has influence over his environment & that action creates reaction. I allow the child to use me as a tool; or, I might mirror his activity. Any communicative attempt to have his needs met is rewarded.

If he continues to have difficulty, I continually analyze what I might change to increase attention. Are there too much environmental stimuli? Are sensory irritants overwhelming him? What can I do to make him more comfortable in his body? Can he attend to preferred activities? Can he attend during one-on-one interaction? Is he having difficulty switching attention? Does music help? Can I use a particular toy to engage him? What suggestions do his parents have? I keep asking questions until I have a feasible answer, & then determine an intervention. If that is ineffective, I remain flexible & attempt again.

The next major concern is the child’s ability to imitate. If he were unable, I would attempt to determine why. Is it a problem of attention? Is it a movement problem? If it were a problem of attention, I would attempt to go one on one with him in a quiet space devoid of sensory distraction. If it were a movement problem, I would attempt to have some one motor the child from behind during gross & fine motor activities. I would do the same when expecting the child to perform actions with objects. I would sit facing the child & attempt to engage him as I mirrored his movements. In time, I would attempt to entice him with the needed level of prompts to mirror mine.

Communication would be evaluated. Does the child demonstrate communicative intent? What is his communication mode? Does he demonstrate verbal capability? Does he respond to visual strategies? Does he respond to signs? Is he able to imitate them? When appropriate, I would incorporate either PECS or prerequisite adaptations as soon as possible.

Social skills would focus on interactive skills. Is the child seemingly aware of others? Does the child interact with me? Does he interact with other students? Does he give rote responses? Are his responses echolalic? I would use myself as the initial interacting agent, for it is easier to control my own responses than the behavior of another child.

Movement is a large component of my personal methodology. It gives needed sensory input & facilitates an organized use of their bodies. I feel strongly that there is a body-mind link to this disorder. An organized body leads to an organized mind; even language is dependent on motor skills. Exercise should be a combination of free play & motored prompts of designated body postures. I prefer exercises that cross the mid-line & engage both brain hemispheres.

I like to take the children on nature walks, as these tend to force them to attend to their environment & stay present. They follow trails; they walk, climb or run on uneven terrain, attempting to avoid or conquer nature’s obstacles. The sights & sounds of nature appear to have a calming effect — as opposed to the artificial sights, sounds, noise, & smells of the classroom environment.

Plays skills vary depend on the level of interaction with toys & peers. Does he interact with toys? Does he use them appropriately? Does he take part in parallel play? Does he engage in a shared activity? I would serve more as a facilitator than a teacher in these interactions, removing prompts as acquisition of skill develops. I would suggest working with him from the back, motoring his body as an extension of your own.

As the child gets older, it is vital to see how he operates in a home, school or community, & in vocational & recreational environments. It is important for schools & agencies to provide information & assist families with guardianship, financial planning, advocacy, outside therapies, peer relationships & counseling. If you are floundering, please contact the ASA for help or an advocate.

Keep asking yourself questions. Are his goals still effective or should they be changed to suit current needs? Do his classes have long-term significance? Does his participation enhance social relationships? Does he have friends or social activities outside of school? How are sexual issues being dealt with? Is the pace & scope of instruction adequate? Are sensory issues, motor adaptations, interfering communication challenges, transition & generalization issues being addressed in all environments. Are his social & emotional needs being met? What are his needs for predictability, repetitions, direct instruction, & generalization? What are his strengths & weaknesses? In short, what changes & adaptations need to be made?

Visualize where you would like to see him at 21. Match the work environment to his needs & style. Determine the level of support he will need & who will be responsible. Each individual is a completely unique blend of strengths & weaknesses. It is not easy to find the right fit. Remain flexible & keep trying. If the child is not suited for a typical work environment, continue to advocate for stimulating experiences to insure that he will be a life-long learner

Summary

1. Make sure the child is comfortable.

2. Let him know he is safe.

3. Address movement & sensory issues.

4. Form a relationship with the child.

5. Engage him in activities of joint attention & cause & effect.

6. Teach him to imitate, motor him when necessary.

7. Set up situation that encourage him to initiate.

8. Provide visual strategies.

9. Continually reassess behavior, learning rate & style 10. Stay flexible

I have served as a teacher of individual persons with autism for 18 years. What they have taught me was to be sure of nothing, & open myself to the extraordinary. It has been & continues to be a remarkable ride.

Mary Ann Harrington

http://web.mac.com/maharrington